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“Kempeitai: Japan’s Dreaded Military Police” by Raymond Lamont-Brown
First published in 1998 by Sutton Publishing Limited
Speculation regarding the involvement of martial artists of the Showa era in war crimes (or the facilitation of war crimes) in the Sino-Japanese war, and Second World War has been generating a great deal of interest among contemporary western practitioners of budo for a number of years now. Aikido’s Morihei Ueshiba, and Shotokan’s Yoshitaka Funakoshi (assisted by Shigeru Egami) both taught unarmed combat at the Kempeitai training facility at Nakano.
The kanji for “bu” is a compound consisting of two elements: at the bottom left is a character meaning “to stop”; above and to the right is a character meaning halberd (or arms); put together the idea conveyed is “to stop arms”. However historically naive, this is the idea of “bu” that first drew me in and it still resonates deeply with me.
Looking carefully at how it is that civilized, educated people, be they the Japanese Kempetai of the Second World War, or be they American military officers at Guantanamo or Abu Ghraib, can become so callused and brutal should be of interest to anyone with a serious interest in bushido.
This deeply disturbing book provides little information concerning the involvement (or lack thereof) of prominent martial artists of this period. This book paints a damning picture of Showa era Japanese policy towards POW’s, and towards non-Japanese people though out Asia who were unlucky enough to find themselves under Japanese control. The conduct of the Kempeitai is particularly disturbing.
The author’s father was detained by the Kempeitai on 5, March, 1942 making this personal. Lamont-Brown’s outrage at the sadistic and outrageous abuse of prisoners and indigenous populations throughout Asia by the Kempeitai is palpable throughout the book.
Lamont-Brown describes the systemic brutality of the Kempeitai prior to the second world war in Manchuria and Shanghai, as well as throughout Japan’s war with the Allied powers.
Here are a few excerpts that illustrate the focus of this book:
From page 8:
Historians endeavoring to research Japanese Second World War studies in general, and Kempeitai activities in particular, have long come across the two main ethnic characteristics to thwart their success: namely, ‘Tactical Myopia’ and ‘Strategic Amnesia Syndrome’. For decades the Gaimusho have had a blinkered attitude to such events at Taisho Iwane Matsui, commander-in Chief of the Central China Area Army’s ‘Rape of Nanking’ on 13 December 1937, in which 300,000 Chinese nationals were slaughtered and maimed, and actively discouraged all who sought to build up a picture of Japan’s role in the Second World War. Only since the 1990’s has the Mombusho allowed new textbooks to give anything like detailed accounts of the Second World War from any point of view.
From page 43:
June 1945 saw the position of the Japanese forces in Burma turn precarious. For some time British paratroopers had been teaming up with local guerrillas to harry Japanese positions at Tenasserim, between Moulmein (the city-port capital of Mon state) and Dali Forest. Shosho Seiei Yamamoto, Chief of Staff to the 33rd Army under Chujo Masaki Hondo ordered a group of soldiers from the 3rd Battalion the 215th Regiment and OC Moulmein Kempeitai to sweep Kalagon and kill as many British paratroopers and dacoits (Burmese bandits) as possible. By 7 July they had occupied the village and and all the inhabitants were rounded up to be interrogated by the Kempeitai. Although Women and children were raped and beaten, no information about the resistance movement was elicited and the Kempeitai ordered the whole village to be massacred. The people were taken tied up, in batches of five to ten, to a nearby group of wells. There they were blindfolded and bayoneted into the wells, alive or not. On that day the 3rd Battalion and the Kempeitai killed 600 villagers.
I will include one last excerpt, from page 151;
Chusa Oishi quickly and meticulously divided Singapore into manageable sub-divisions under Shosa Tomotatsu Iyo and Chusa Yoshitaka Yokota, who commanded the screening of all civilians and characterized Chinese suspects as ‘undesirable and anti-Japanese’; and decided who should die. Soon Kempeitai lock-ups were bulging with suspects, and during 17-24 Febuary 1942, the Chusa Tsuji monitered every step of the killing programme, berating the Kempeitai if the numbers of the Chinese slaughtered seemed to fall. In all some 5,000 persons were to be murdered in Singapore in the ‘Tsuji holocost’.
Because of the profoundly disturbing nature of this book I will refrain from using our usual light-hearted rating system and simply recommend that you take the time to read it.
- Related Links: Full text article-“Military Medical Ethics, Volume 2”
- Full text article-“Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist”
- Full text article –“The Development and Psychology of Bushido and Budo” by Paul D. Short. Excerpt-” Nitobe’s Bushido caught on during the nationalistic movement of Meiji Japan. It was the root of the propaganda that the Japanese carried with them to World War II. Hurst sums up Nitobe’s Bushido as “merely an illusion created by projecting Puritanism, which he had learned from the West, on Japan.” “
- National Library- Singapore article “Kempeitai”
- San Fransisco Chronicle “WAR Japanese soldiers finally tell their story” by Richard James Havis
- National Archives “Japanese War Crimes-Resources for Researchers”
- Wikipedia listing for “Showa Period”
- Wikipedia listing for “Second Sino-Japanese War”
- Wikipedia article “Kempeitai”
Follow this link to Nitobe’s often cited work ” Bushido, the Soul of Japan” (full text included).
There is a short article over at the “Things Worth Believing In” blog discussing the Bushido Shoshinshu that I recommend taking some time to read.
Find it Here.
Spend a few years in karate and you will find that there are all sorts of scoundrels associated with karate who—for all of the years they have spent talking about character perfection—are nothing more than bullies, thieves, liars, con men, or worse. There are lots of good people who train in karate as well, but in my experience the distribution of bad to good people pretty well matches the distribution in society at large; there is nothing magic about karate that makes its practitioners good people or moral exemplars.
Claims regarding the moral benefits of karate are pretty ubiquitous. These claims are everywhere from the copies of the dojo kun hung on training halls to the cheesy adverts in newspapers offering to help “little Johnny” stay off drugs, become more disciplined, to raise his grades, and turn him into Superman if his parents fork over some cash to “Grandmaster” (hold on tight to your wallet when someone starts trying to sell you morality.)
This association between karate and character does more than just line the pockets of snake oil samurai. It provides a platform for unwarranted moral posturing on the part of your friendly neighborhood shihan. If you want to find someone worth venerating as a moral exemplar, you are more likely to find them volunteering at a soup kitchen, working with special needs kids, or lending a hand at the local homeless shelter than at a karate dojo.
The moral pretensions of disingenuous karate teachers can be genuinely harmful. I remember a club that was affiliated with the same national organization I belonged to once hosted a seminar taught by a senior karate teacher. About an hour after training (ironically concluded with a period of seated meditation and recitation of the dojo kun), the group gathered at a local restaurant and the visiting instructor loudly asked the students “who is gonna f*** sensei tonight?”. This question was not meant to be funny or ironic, considering this man’s history it probably counted more as foreplay.
I had brought several of my students in a minivan to the event. Upon hearing this I politely excused myself (I still regret that I was polite about this), gathered my students, and drove off. Some of my female students were as young as fourteen years old. We never again visited any events hosted by this group.
The host club trained in a gym run by a local women’s advocacy association and many of the students who trained there found the club through this organization. They understandably assumed that any group using its facilities would be sensitive to the fact that a substantial portion of the women served by it had been victims of some form of misogynistic behavior. Several women who had trained with the group reported to the institution—and later to several higher ranking members of their karate organization—that they had been the victims of sexual harassment and other associated abusive behavior. The fall out from this essentially destroyed the club.
From conversations I had had with several of the members of this group (before all of the harassment charges came to light) I knew how important karate was to many of them. It represented a way to empower themselves. Some of them had already lived though devastating emotional and physical abuse. Karate training represented a foray into a world larger than the quaint Midwestern landscape, and it was supposed to have something to do with “seeking perfection of character”. I can not imagine how much emotional damage was done to these people. I expect that it was worse because they suffered at the hands of men whose power was underwritten by both physical power and supposed moral authority.
Forget everything you have ever been told about “fighting spirit”, most of the time the instructors using this term are bullies. It is not a moral issue or character issue. It is a matter of what an individual has learned they can take and survive. Someone who has survived by acting less dominant, by trying to avoid confrontation, or by “flinching” to protect herself does not necessarily have a character problem. The bullying instructor who—believing some self-serving and naïve semiology—equates these behaviors with some species of bad character simply reveals his own ignorance.
Learning is the key. If you show students that they have a better chance of surviving by moving in to stuff an attack, they will. Provide them with a safe environment to explore assertiveness. The degree to which they experience success will bear on how they learn and incorporate this behavior. Moralizing the natural “flinch” responses in lower ranked students is unproductive, pedagogically naïve, and offensive. If you really need to recast the flinch response for your student, turn it into something like an eye gouge. Do not turn it into a moral indicator.
Some people claim that “fighting spirit” implies a willingness to sacrifice oneself in order to realize some strategic end such as providing time for family or loved one to escape an attack. This sort of behavior may be gallant; however I have found no evidence of the rehearsal of (existentially) self sacrificial behavior in regularly practiced in karate classes. In fact most of karate training involves modeling methods of survival. I have met many people who do not train in karate who would gladly make any sacrifice for their families or loved ones. I have met bullies who train in karate and who simply hide their fears behind aggression. The correlation between preparedness to sacrifice oneself and karate practice is a loose one at best.
The primary aim of karate training is to improve the student’s chances of survival in a fight (in the real world, as opposed to within a constructed environment). All of the other benefits (real or imagined) of karate, such as focus, determination, character development, etc are, to some degree dependant on the process of striving to develop the ability to fight (in the context of a community of fellow karate learners.)
If you are concerned about developing character, model the kind of behavior you want to see in your students, including modeling the “losing” side of partner drills. Do not spend all of your time fawning over the amazing physical skills of your most talented athletes while ignoring the efforts of those who struggle. Draw attention to the importance of cooperation in training. Train hard, and proclaim less. Let the students know you struggle to improve just as they do. There is nothing wrong with reciting the dojo kun, just remember it is not a magic formula.
Moral issues are not all easy or obvious. Be prepared to have conversations with students after class. They will want to know about dealing with bullies, abusive partners, imagined street defense issues, they will want to tell you about fights they have had and all sorts of related stuff. Do not expect to, or act like, you have all of the answers to their questions. Many times they will get on your nerves and will seem hopelessly naïve. If you have the time to teach them how to hurt people you should have the time to talk to them about it. By spending the time talking about these things after class you are confirming the importance of moral thinking for your students. By acknowledging the difficulty of knowing what is morally required of each of us, and the difficulty of acting accordingly, you encourage genuine moral thinking.
I am in the process of writing an article about the use/misuse of terms like ‘fighting spirit’ and ‘ego’ in karate training for this blog. I should have it up before too much longer. In the meantime I would like to invite readers to look at the attached articles and think about hazing, socialization, and abuse as they relate to the gendai budo such as karate. I am not trying to pick on Japan by drawing attention to these articles, hazing is a problem in most cultures, however budo people often get soft headed and doe eyed when something is regarded as traditional or common practice in Japan.
and last but not least;
Japan’s Education, Oct 1986, Tokyo Business Today (see last section, ” Tradtion without Responsibility”)
If you are at all interested in reading a brief account of the modernization of Japan’s military you may want to take a few minutes and read the article “From Swords to Guns”. Click Here.
For a more full account of the reforms initiated during the Meiji, including military, political, and educational reforms, click Here.
I found this article on kamikaze that I thought some of our readers may be interested in. The “Training and Attacking” may be most interesting section for martial artists.
Click here; Encyclopedia: Kamikaze
Follow this for a very informative article on Japanese Confucianism. The entire article is worth reading. Section 3.3 made me think about Gillian Russell’s article “Epistemic Viciousness in the Martial Arts”.Section 4 discusses the Meiji restoration and the (Confucian) scholar Yoshida Shoin as well as Inoue Tetsujiro’s contribution to the development of Bushido. Click Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy-Japanese Confucian Philosophy
For a more detailed discusion of the Mito School of Confucianism and the Meiji restoration click here.